Betonarme 2 - Uğur ERSOY PDF: A Classic Textbook on Reinforced Concrete Engineering
Betonarme 2 - Uğur ERSOY PDF: A Comprehensive Guide to Reinforced Concrete Design
Reinforced concrete is one of the most widely used materials in civil engineering and architecture. It combines the strength of concrete with the ductility of steel, making it suitable for various types of structures such as buildings, bridges, dams, tunnels, etc. However, designing and constructing reinforced concrete structures requires a solid understanding of the material properties, structural behavior, analysis methods, design criteria, and construction techniques.
If you are looking for a reliable and comprehensive source of information on reinforced concrete design, analysis, and construction, you should consider downloading Betonarme 2 - Uğur ERSOY PDF. This is a digital version of the books written by Professor Uğur ERSOY, a renowned Turkish civil engineer and academician who has more than 40 years of experience in teaching and practicing reinforced concrete engineering. In this article, we will introduce you to Betonarme 2 - Uğur ERSOY PDF, explain why it is important for civil engineers and architects, and show you how to download it for free from Scribd. We will also cover some basic concepts of reinforced concrete engineering that you can learn from Betonarme 2 - Uğur ERSOY PDF.
What is Betonarme 2 - Uğur ERSOY PDF?
Betonarme 2 - Uğur ERSOY PDF is a digital version of the books Betonarme 1 (Reinforced Concrete 1) and Betonarme 2 (Reinforced Concrete 2) written by Professor Uğur ERSOY. These books are considered as classic textbooks on reinforced concrete engineering in Turkey and have been used by thousands of students and professionals since their first publication in 1976. The books cover all aspects of reinforced concrete engineering from theory to practice, including material properties, structural behavior, analysis methods, design criteria, construction techniques, quality control, testing procedures, defects, failures, repair, and maintenance.
Betonarme 2 - Uğur ERSOY PDF is available in Turkish language only. However, it is possible to use online translation tools such as Google Translate or DeepL to convert it into other languages such as English. The PDF format also allows you to easily search for keywords, zoom in and out, highlight text, add notes, etc.
Why is Betonarme 2 - Uğur ERSOY PDF important for civil engineers and architects?
Betonarme 2 - Uğur ERSOY PDF is important for civil engineers and architects because it provides a comprehensive and authoritative guide to reinforced concrete engineering. It covers both theoretical and practical aspects of reinforced concrete engineering in a clear and concise manner. It also includes numerous examples, figures, tables, charts, diagrams, equations, formulas, etc. that illustrate the concepts and applications of reinforced concrete engineering. By reading Betonarme 2 - Uğur ERSOY PDF, you can learn:
The fundamentals of reinforced concrete engineering such as material properties, structural behavior, analysis methods, design criteria, etc.
The advanced topics of reinforced concrete engineering such as load combinations, safety factors, design codes, etc.
The practical aspects of reinforced concrete engineering such as construction techniques, quality control, testing procedures, defects, failures, repair, and maintenance.
Betonarme 2 - Uğur ERSOY PDF can help you improve your knowledge and skills in reinforced concrete engineering. It can also help you prepare for exams, projects, assignments, research, etc. related to reinforced concrete engineering.
How to download Betonarme 2 - Uğur ERSOY PDF for free?
One of the easiest ways to download Betonarme 2 - Uğur ERSOY PDF for free is to use Scribd. Scribd is an online platform that allows you to access millions of books, documents, audiobooks, podcasts, etc. for free or with a subscription. You can download Betonarme 2 - Uğur ERSOY PDF from Scribd by following these steps:
Go to https://www.scribd.com/document/321874317/Betonarme-2-U%C4%9Fur-ERSOY-pdf. This is the link to Betonarme 2 - Uğur ERSOY PDF on Scribd.
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You can also download other books by Professor Uğur ERSOY from Scribd such as Betonarme 1 (Reinforced Concrete 1), Yapı Statiği (Structural Statics), Yapı Dinamiği (Structural Dynamics), etc.
Reinforced Concrete Basics
What is reinforced concrete?
Reinforced concrete is a composite material that consists of two main components: concrete and steel reinforcement. Concrete is a mixture of cement, water, sand, and aggregates (such as gravel or crushed stone) that hardens into a strong and durable material. Steel reinforcement is a network of steel bars or wires that are embedded in the concrete to provide tensile strength and ductility. Tensile strength is the ability to resist stretching or pulling forces. Ductility is the ability to deform without breaking or cracking.
Reinforced concrete works by combining the compressive strength of concrete with the tensile strength and ductility of steel reinforcement. Compressive strength is the ability to resist squeezing or pushing forces. Concrete has high compressive strength but low tensile strength and ductility. Steel reinforcement has high tensile strength and ductility but low compressive strength. By placing steel reinforcement in the areas where tensile stresses are expected (such as at the bottom of beams or slabs), reinforced concrete can resist both compressive and tensile forces effectively.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of reinforced concrete?
Reinforced concrete has many advantages over other materials such as wood, brick, stone, or metal. Some of these advantages are:
It has high strength and durability. It can withstand high loads, impacts, fire, weathering, corrosion, etc. without losing its structural integrity.
It has high versatility and adaptability. It can be molded into various shapes, sizes, and forms according to the design requirements. It can also be combined with other materials such as glass, plastic, or wood to create aesthetic effects.
It has low cost and maintenance. It is relatively cheap to produce and install compared to other materials. It also requires minimal maintenance and repair over its lifespan.
It has high fire resistance and thermal mass. It can withstand high temperatures without losing its structural stability or releasing toxic gases. It can also store and release heat, which can help regulate indoor temperature and reduce energy consumption.
However, reinforced concrete also has some disadvantages that should be considered before using it. Some of these disadvantages are:
It has high environmental impact. It consumes a lot of natural resources such as limestone, sand, gravel, water, and energy. It also emits a lot of carbon dioxide and other pollutants during its production and transportation. According to some studies , reinforced concrete structures are responsible for about 7% of the global carbon dioxide emissions.
It has low tensile strength and ductility without reinforcement. It is prone to cracking and spalling under tensile or flexural stresses. It also has low resistance to shear and torsion forces. Therefore, it needs adequate reinforcement to prevent failure.
It has low resistance to corrosion and chemical attack. It can deteriorate due to the exposure to moisture, oxygen, carbon dioxide, chloride ions, sulfates, acids, alkalis, etc. These agents can cause corrosion of the steel reinforcement or chemical reaction with the concrete matrix, resulting in loss of strength and durability.
What are the main components of reinforced concrete?
The main components of reinforced concrete are concrete and steel reinforcement. Concrete is a mixture of cement, water, sand, and aggregates (such as gravel or crushed stone) that hardens into a strong and durable material. Steel reinforcement is a network of steel bars or wires that are embedded in the concrete to provide tensile strength and ductility.
Cement is the binding agent that holds the concrete together. It is made from limestone, clay, and other raw materials that are heated in a kiln at high temperatures to produce clinker. The clinker is then ground with gypsum and other additives to produce cement powder.
Water is the mixing agent that activates the cement hydration process. It is also the curing agent that helps the concrete gain strength and durability over time. The amount of water used in the concrete mix affects its workability, strength, and durability.
Sand is the fine aggregate that fills the gaps between the cement particles and improves the workability of the concrete mix. It also reduces the shrinkage and cracking of the concrete.
Aggregates are the coarse materials that provide bulk and strength to the concrete mix. They can be natural or artificial, such as gravel, crushed stone, slag, or recycled concrete. They also reduce the cost and environmental impact of the concrete production.
Steel reinforcement is the metal component that provides tensile strength and ductility to the concrete structure. It can be in the form of bars, wires, meshes, fibers, etc. that are placed in the areas where tensile stresses are expected (such as at the bottom of beams or slabs). The steel reinforcement should have good bond with the concrete matrix and adequate cover to prevent corrosion.
What are the design principles of reinforced concrete?
The design principles of reinforced concrete are based on the assumption that the concrete and steel reinforcement act together as a composite material under load. This means that they have compatible strains (deformations) and share the stresses according to their relative stiffness (modulus of elasticity). The design principles also consider the ultimate limit state (ULS) and serviceability limit state (SLS) of the structure.
The ultimate limit state (ULS) refers to the maximum load that can be applied to the structure before it collapses or becomes unstable. It is related to the safety and strength of the structure under extreme loads such as dead load, live load, wind load, earthquake load, etc. A structure is designed to have a low probability of reaching the ULS during its service life. The ULS design is based on the application of load factors and resistance factors to account for the uncertainties and variabilities in the loads and material properties. The load factors increase the design loads to represent the worst-case scenarios, while the resistance factors reduce the design resistances to account for the possible defects and deterioration of the materials. The ULS design criterion can be expressed as: $$\sum Q_i \leq R$$ where $Q_i$ are the factored loads and $R$ is the factored resistance. The serviceability limit state (SLS) refers to the normal use and function of the structure under moderate loads such as dead load, live load, etc. It is related to the comfort and aesthetics of the structure under service conditions. A structure is designed to satisfy certain performance criteria such as deflection, crack width, vibration, corrosion, etc. The SLS design is based on the application of service loads and service resistances without any factors. The SLS design criterion can be expressed as: $$\sum q_i \leq r$$ where $q_i$ are the service loads and $r$ is the service resistance. Reinforced Concrete Analysis and Design
What are the methods of analysis and design of reinforced concrete structures?
The methods of analysis and design of reinforced concrete structures can be classified into two main categories: elastic methods and plastic methods.
Elastic methods are based on the assumption that the concrete and steel reinforcement behave linearly and elastically under load, meaning that they obey Hooke's law and return to their original shape after unloading. Elastic methods use elastic stress-strain relationships for both concrete and steel reinforcement, and calculate the stresses and strains at any cross-section using compatibility equations and equilibrium equations. Elastic methods are suitable for SLS design, but not for ULS design, because they do not account for the nonlinear behavior and failure modes of reinforced concrete.
Plastic methods are based on the assumption that the concrete and steel reinforcement behave nonlinearly and plastically under load, meaning that they undergo permanent deformation and do not return to their original shape after unloading. Plastic methods use plastic stress-strain relationships for both concrete and steel reinforcement, and calculate the ultimate load-carrying capacity of a cross-section using plastic hinge theory and yield criteria. Plastic methods are suitable for ULS design, but not for SLS design, because they do not account for the serviceability requirements of reinforced concrete.
Some common elastic methods are: working stress method (WSM), linear elastic analysis (LEA), moment distribution method (MDM), etc. Some common plastic methods are: ultimate strength method (USM), limit state method (LSM), plastic hinge analysis (PHA), etc.
What are the load combinations and safety factors for reinforced concrete structures?
The load combinations and safety factors for reinforced concrete structures are prescribed by various design codes and standards that specify the minimum requirements for the design and construction of reinforced concrete structures. Some of the most widely used design codes and standards are: - ACI 318: Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary, published by the American Concrete Institute (ACI). It is the main reference for reinforced concrete design in the United States and many other countries. It covers all aspects of reinforced concrete design, including materials, analysis, design, construction, inspection, testing, and evaluation. It also provides appendices for specific topics such as seismic design, prestressed concrete, strut-and-tie models, etc. - BS 8110: Structural Use of Concrete, published by the British Standards Institution (BSI). It is the main code of practice for the design of reinforced or prestressed concrete structures (excluding bridges) in the United Kingdom and many other countries. It is divided into two parts: Part 1 covers the code of practice for design and construction, and Part 2 covers the code of practice for special circumstances such as fire resistance, durability, robustness, etc. - Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures, published by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). It is a harmonized European standard for the design of concrete structures that applies to all member states of the European Union and many other countries. It is divided into four parts: Part 1-1 covers general rules and rules for buildings, Part 1-2 covers structural fire design, Part 2 covers concrete bridges, and Part 3 covers liquid retaining and containment structures. - IS 456: Plain and Reinforced Concrete - Code of Practice, published by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). It is the main code of practice for the design of plain and reinforced concrete structures in India. It covers all aspects of reinforced concrete design, including materials, analysis, design, construction, quality control, testing, and maintenance. It also provides annexes for specific topics such as earthquake-resistant design, durability criteria, limit state method, etc. These design codes and standards provide general guidelines and recommendations for reinforced concrete design. However, they may not cover all possible situations or scenarios that may arise in practice. Therefore, it is important to use professional judgment and experience when applying these codes and standards to specific projects.